CO2 levels for August’2016

Its 9th September today and the weather doesn’t look good, its a bit hazy. While scouring the web today I came across the following piece of data.

CO2 levels for August,2016 have been recorded at 404.07.

In January,2005 this value was 378.21.

The current value means an increase of approximately 7 percent in the last 11 years.

Yes, CO2 is a green house and it important for a warm climate but higher value of CO2 is dangerous and we call this global warming.


World’s species and tropical rainforests

Equator is an imaginary line cutting the Earth into near half’s. And it is at/around the equator we find the tropical rainforests and it is almost always warm and wet over there. The most commonly known to us is the Amazon Rain Forest.
Warm and Wet, this is a condition required for a lush of plants and trees and the fun fact is that Half of the whole world’s species live in tropical rainforests. Many of species across the globe are found only in tropical rainforests and nowhere else and also the plants in tropical rainforests produce 40% of Earth’s oxygen.
So, yes Rain Forests are very important to us.
Protect & Preserve.


Carbon Storage

Excerpts used from article by Chelsea Harvey, Washington Post dated july 29

The basic concept of carbon storing is simple i.e. catch carbon dioxide from factories and other industrial facilities before it goes into the atmosphere and then either store it indefinitely underground or inject it into oil reservoirs to help pump out more oil.
But while many experts have touted the process as an essential factor in the mitigation of climate change, others have argued that it’s too risky.
A new study published in the journal Nature Communications has addressed a concern associated with carbon storage i.e. safety. In the past, critics have suggested that carbon dioxide stored underground may be able to corrode the rock layers above it and eventually escape, a possibility that’s been supported by some modeling and laboratory studies. This would be bad for the climate, of course, but some environmental and public health advocates have also worried that escaped carbon dioxide in large volumes could damage the water or air quality of nearby communities. But the new study suggests that such concerns may be overblown. The researchers examined a natural carbon dioxide reservoir near Green River, Utah, and found that the carbon dioxide has been trapped underground there for about 100,000 years without dangerously corroding the rocks that are trapping it in place. (For perspective, climate experts have suggested that carbon dioxide must be kept stored underground for at least 10,000 years to keep it from adding to the current global warming.
These observations suggest that storing carbon underground may (at least at some sites) be much safer than previous model and laboratory experiments have suggested.

Pink Snow and Yes We should we worried

We all know that arctic snow is melting.

Nothing new, Right?

But, climate change has caused the arctic snow to turn pink and no its’ not a pretty pink but it’s a dangerous one…very dangerous one.

Rose snow occurs when the green algae turns pink after absorbing too much ultraviolet rays.This rose snow also leads to melting of the glacier belt…

Artificial Intelligence

Human intelligence is unparallel and it is using this intelligence we are working towards the concept of artificial intelligence, we are achieving success, still a lot of research and activities are going on in this field. There are various schemes that scientists and enthusiasts all over the world are working on, these are Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms.

Neural Networks involve a learning mechanism which is explained in manner the human brain works. Fuzzy logic can be seen as the principle basis used by various companies to develop day to day machines like washing machine, air conditioners. Genetic algorithms if we think of is more of an optimization.

Genetic algorithms if we think of is more of an optimization. It uses the best parameters in a set of events, outcomes and results and extracts the best result out of it. It is based on concept of Human evolution i.e, the way human species developed and evolved with passing time.[GeneticAlgorithms.ppt] .

A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a robust optimization technique based on natural selection. The basic goal of GAs is to optimize functions called fitness functions. GA-based approaches differ from conventional problem-solving methods in several ways. First, GAs work with a coding of the parameter set rather than the parameters themselves. Second, GAs search from a population of points rather than a single point. Third, GAs use payoff (objective function) information, not other auxiliary knowledge. Finally, GAs use probabilistic transition rules, not deterministic rules. These properties make GAs robust, powerful, and data-independent.
Its basis in natural selection allows a GA to employ a “survival of the fittest” strategy when searching for optima. The use of a population of points helps the GA avoid converging to false peaks (local optima) in the search space.

A.  Terminology

  • Chromosome: A simple GA requires the parameter set of the optimization problem to be encoded as a string (binary, real, etc.). These strings are known as chromosomes. They are manipulated by the GA in an attempt to obtain the string that represents the optimal solution to the problem. Evolutionary process works on chromosomes, i.e., chromosomes are used to pass information from one generation to the next and also for information exchange between two individuals of the same generation to create a new individual consisting of a combination of information from both the parent individuals.

  • Genes: A character or symbol in a GA chromosome is called as a gene. Genes are the basic building blocks of the solution and represent the properties which make one solution different from the other.

  • Allele: The value of a gene in a GA is called an allele, such as for eye color, the different possible ‘settings’ (e.g., blue, brown, hazel etc.) are called alleles.

  • Selection: A genetic operator used to select individuals for reproduction .

  • Crossover:  A key operator used in the GA to create new individuals by combining portions of two parent strings .

  • Crossover probability:  Probability of performing a crossover operation, denoted by pc, i.e., the ratio of the number of offspring produced in each generation to the population size. This value of pc is chosen generally in the range of 0.7 to 0.9.

  • Mutation:  An incremental change to a member of the GA population [8].

  • Mutation Probability: The probability of mutating each gene in a GA chromosome, denoted by pm. This value is chosen generally in the range of 0.01 to 0.03.

B  GA Basics

A simple GA starts with a population of solutions encoded in one of the many ways. Binary encodings are quite common and are used in this thesis. The GA determines each string’s strength based on an objective function and performs one or more of the three genetic operators on certain strings in the population [1], [10].

                              select a pair of members randomly
                             perform crossover on the two members
                            perform mutation on the crossed members
                           insert the new members into the population
                until done with current generation
           until done with GA

For Publications on genetic algorithms, go to Home Page for download


Smart Grids

A few years back power houses generated power and the grids distributed it. There used to occur load shedding based on peak demand and if there used to be any scope power generated was ramped up.
Simple Grids to supply us the power energy to run our homes, our industries.
Today we are working day and night towards finding other sources/alternatives for power generation and unlike the power few years back this power is decentralized and hence the need for smart and new breed grids.
One major challenge associated with renewable energy is that the power is dependent on weather conditions, if the conditions are conducive we get lots of power. Now unlike our conventional power plants this creates a problem. Hence, smart grids with power storage is of extreme importance today.

Environment: Ambient Air & Water Pollution

Measuring both, ambient air conditions, effluent discharge to river bodies is critically important. Industrial pollution mainly consists of Sox,Nox,CO & SPM as air pollutants and measurement of BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), COD(Chemical Oxygen Demand) as critical in terms of water quality measurement.

These days almost all countries have pollution Control Boards,whose sole task is to keep a vigil on pollutants discharged into the environment. It is the pollution boards that prescribes different standards based on new and old installation and also on the types of fuel being used.

Central Pollution Control Board, CPCB , is a nodal agency in India for pollution related efforts. A previous going initiative, which was to provide online data of pollution measurement to pollution boards has picked up and industries to bound provide the data to cpcb and also operate within the limits provided by cpcb.