Earth Science is a pretty big field in itself and basically this field covers all that is related to earth- resources, climate, geographic structures, earthquakes,oceans and much more.
Whenever we talk of any major shift or change that takes place on Earth we look towards Sun and subsequently comes into place, Earth-Sun relationship.
There is a Theory by Milankovitch that is about long term climate change for example ice age and the retreat of ice age. As the Earth travels through space around the sun cyclical variations in three elements of Earth-sun geometry combine to produce variations in the amount of solar energy that reaches Earth. Three elements that have cyclic variations are eccentricity, obliquity, and precession.
#Eccentricity is a term used to describe the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun.
#Obliquity is the variation of the tilt of the earth’s axis away from the orbital plane.
#Precession is the change in orientation of the Earth’s rotational axis.